The charge sheet stated that Aminu Adamu Mohamed posted a photograph of Aisha Buhari and that she wrote in Hausa language words which roughly translated to accuse her of embezzlement.
The prosecution charged the 23-year old with spreading false information.
His lawyer stated that he had not been charged with defamation in court.
On Monday, the undergraduate will begin his final exams.
As he is currently in detention, it is not clear if he will be released.
Chijioke Kingsley, his lawyer, said to the BBC that he had requested bail and that he hoped it would be approved within 48 hours.
His parents, Mr Mohammed and Mrs Buhari, have publicly pleaded for forgiveness from their son. The authorities and she have not commented.
According to reports, Mohammed was arrested earlier in the month but appeared only on Tuesday.
Prosecutors stated that the rough English translation of Hausa’s tweet was “Mama embezzled funds meant for the poor”.
If convicted, Mohammed could face a maximum sentence of two years imprisonment
He is currently studying environmental management at Federal University, Jigawa’s northern state. He is a bright student, according to his classmates.
Rights campaigners and social media users have criticized Nigerian authorities’ treatment of the student, and demanded his immediate release.
Some believe that Nigerian officials are becoming more intolerant of criticism.
Two young TikTok users were fined earlier this month and flogged in open after a court found them guilty in a video posted on social media of defaming Kano’s governor.
Nigeria will hold elections in February. President Buhari is scheduled to resign at the end his second and last term.